Eventually, those theorists who viewed crowds as uncontrolled groups of irrational people were supplanted by theorists who viewed the behavior some crowds engaged in as the rational behavior of logical beings. To distinguish between them, remember that members of a mass share interests, whereas members of a public share ideas. Instead, norms develop and are accepted as they fit the situation. Glossary acting crowds crowds of people who are focused on a specific action or goal assembling perspective a theory that credits individuals in crowds as behaving as rational thinkers and views crowds as engaging in … Collective behavior according to Smelser is relatively spontaneous and unstructured behavior of a group of people who are reacting to a common influence in an ambiguous situation. He identified several instances of convergent or collective behavior, as shown on the chart below. There are three primary forms of collective behavior: the crowd, the mass, and the public. A single individual barely has influence on an organization's situation, but every individual is able to rejoice in every improvement, regardless of whether he/she has contributed to it, a "conflict between collectively and individually best action" is existing. This idea is striking, given that some have described panic as the purest form of collective behavior. He noted six conditions that must be present: (1) the social structure must be peculiarly conducive to the collective behaviour in question; (2) a group of people must experience strain; (3) a distinctive type of belief must be present to interpret the situation; (4) there must be a precipitating event; (5) the group of people must be mobilized for action on the basis of the belief; and (6) there must be an appropriate interaction between the mobilized group and agencies of social control. Neil Smelser’s (1962) meticulous categorization of crowd behavior, called value-added theory, is a perspective within the functionalist tradition based on the idea that several conditions must be in place for collective behavior to occur. While these two types of crowds are similar, they are not the same. From this point of view collective behaviour erupts as an unpleasant symptom of frustration and malaise stemming from cultural conflict, organizational failure, and other social malfunctions. Convergence theory: Crowd behavior reflects the beliefs and intentions that individuals already share before they join a crowd. Perhaps experiencing a flash mob event enhances this bond. The final type, acting crowds, focuses on a specific goal or action, such as a protest movement or riot. Conventional crowds are those who come together for a scheduled event that occurs regularly, like a religious service. As they discuss their potential behavior … What sets them apart? Collective Behavior. The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind. Both have sought to explain why a group of people feel and act (1) unanimously, (2) intensely, and (3) differently from the manner in which they customarily act. The shooting drew national attention almost immediately. Frustration and lack of firm social anchorage are the two most widely used explanations for individual participation in collective behaviour of all kinds. Episodes of collective behaviour tend to be quite spontaneous, resulting from an experience shared by the members of the group that engenders a sense of common interest and identity. A mass is a relatively large number of people with a common interest, though they may not be in close proximity (Lofland 1993), such as players of the popular Facebook game Farmville. Theories of Collective Behaviour and So cial Movements The need to consider th eories o f collective behaviour and social movements has raised some … Finally the assembling perspective focuses on collective action rather than collective behavior, … Question 1: Discuss collective behavior and their theories. The first, the emergent-norm perspective, emphasizes the importance of social norms in crowd behavior. Interactionist sociologist Clark McPhail (1991) developed assembling perspective, another system for understanding collective behavior that credited individuals in crowds as rational beings. Berkeley: University of California Press. Olson's theory explores the market failures where individual consumer rationality and firms' profit-seeking do not lead to efficient provision of the public goods, i. e. where another level of provision would provide a higher gain at lower expenses. “Collective Behavior.” Pp. These interaction theories have been labeled contagion and convergence theories, respectively—the former stressing the contagious spread of mood and behaviour; the latter stressing the convergence of a large number of people with similar predispositions. Freud retained this emphasis in viewing crowd behaviour and many other forms of collective behaviour as regressions to an earlier stage of childhood development; he explained, for example, the slavish identification that followers have for leaders on the basis of such regression. Collective behavior, a third form of action, takes place when norms are absent or unclear, or when they contradict eac… As useful as this is for understanding the components of how crowds come together, many sociologists criticize its lack of attention on the large cultural context of the described behaviors, instead focusing on individual actions. The Myth of the Madding Crowd. Rather than contagion, it is an emergent norm or rule that governs external appearances and, to a lesser extent, internal convictions in collective behaviour. Eventually, those theorists who viewed crowds as uncontrolled groups of irrational people were supplanted by theorists who viewed the behavior some crowds engaged in as the rational behavior of logical beings. Early collective behavior theories (LeBon 1895; Blumer 1969) focused on the irrationality of crowds. From the revolutionist’s point of view, much collective behaviour is a release of creative impulses from the repressive effects of established social orders. Common terms and phrases. 4th ed. According to the emergent-norm perspective, Hurricane Katrina victims sought needed supplies for survival, but to outsiders their behavior would normally be seen as looting. What is an example of each? The fifth condition is mobilization for action, when leaders emerge to direct a crowd to action. This part of the theory, although logically peripheral, needs further development. In short, collective behavior is any group behavior that is not mandated or regulated by an institution. Some flash mobs may function as political protests, while others are for fun. While tensions were building over Ukraine’s efforts to join the European Union, and even as Russian troops had taken control of the Ukrainian airbase in Belbek, the Odessa Philharmonic Orchestra and Opera Chorus tried to lighten the troubled times for shoppers with music and song. This article discusses collective action theory and focuses on three broad tropics. (Photo courtesy of Mattwi1S0n:/flickr). 1993. 1993. Collective Behavior And Their Theories Essay 1745 Words | 7 Pages. A real-life example of these conditions occurred after the fatal police shooting of teenager Michael Brown, an unarmed eighteen-year-old African American, in Ferguson, MO on August 9, 2014. Smelser, Neil J. They emphasize the importance of these norms in shaping crowd behavior, especially those norms that shift quickly in response to changing external factors. In the psychiatric tradition, frustration heightens suggestibility, generates fantasy, brings about regressions and fixations, and intensifies drives toward wish fulfillment so that normal inhibitions are overcome. Emergent norm theory: People are not sure how to behave when they begin to interact in collective behavior. There are three main theories on collective behavior. Richard Berkhas used game theory to suggest that even a panic in a burning theater actors may conduct themselves rationally. Discuss the differences between an acting crowd and a collective crowd. Collective Behavior. http://cnx.org/contents/02040312-72c8-441e-a685-20e9333f3e1d/Introduction_to_Sociology_2e, Carpooling parents take several children to the movies, Collective and simultaneous participation in a speech or song, Pledge of Allegiance in the school classroom, The direction and rate of movement to the event, Describe different forms of collective behavior, Discuss emergent norm, value-added, and assembling perspective analyses of collective behavior. Unlike previous theories, this theory refocuses attention from collective behavior to collective action. It first examines the growing and extensive theoretical literature that posits a host of structural variables presumed to affect the likelihood of individuals achieving collective action to overcome social dilemmas. Collective Behavior Theories 1765 Words | 8 Pages. Collective behavior is a term sociologists use to refer to a miscellaneous set of behaviors in which large numbers of people engage. The informality of the group’s structure is the main source of the frequent … Because the leader is unattainable, and because his attentions must be shared among many followers, a relation of identification is expressed in the demand for uniformity that the followers insistently impose on each other, according to the example of the leader. Examples include a group of people attending an Ani DiFranco concert, tailgating at a Patriots game, or attending a worship service. If members of the audience decide that it is more rational to run to the exits than to walk the result may look like an animal-like stampedewithout in fact being irrational. In class, it was taught that his definition included social unrest, crowds, sects, publics, mass movements, crowd mind, propaganda, and fashion as forms of collective behavior. They believe that the norms experienced by people in a crowd may be disparate and fluctuating. Contagion theory: Collective behavior is emotional and irrational and results from the hypnotic influence of the crowd. They often are captured on video and shared on the Internet; frequently they go viral. The element of social control escalated over the following days until August 18, when the governor called in the National Guard. Turner, Ralph, and Lewis M. Killian. 1963. Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice Hall. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Finally the assembling perspective focuses on collective action rather than collective behavior, addressing the processes associated with crowd behavior and the lifecycle and various categories of gatherings. ... Theories of civil violence. Extending Karl Marx’s theory of modern man’s alienation from his work, many contemporary students attribute faddism, crowds, movements of the spirit, and interest-group and revolutionary movements to a wide-ranging alienation from family, community, and country, as well as from work. 67–121 in Principles of Sociology, edited by A.M. Lee. Publication date 1965 Topics Social psychology, Human behavior Publisher New York : Free Press Collection cdl; americana Digitizing sponsor Internet Archive Contributor University of California Libraries Language English. In the sociological tradition of Émile Durkheim, absence of firm integration into social groups leaves the individual open to deviant ideas and susceptible to the vital sense of solidarity that comes from participation in spontaneous groupings. The first, the emergent-norm perspective, emphasizes the importance of social norms in crowd behavior. (Photo courtesy of Infrogmation/Wikimedia Commons). McPhail, Clark. Collective behavior might also be defined as action which is neither conforming (in which actors follow prevailing norms) nor deviant (in which actors violate those norms). Collective behaviour, the kinds of activities engaged in by sizable but loosely organized groups of people. A public, on the other hand, is an unorganized, relatively diffused group of people who share ideas, such as the Libertarian political party. Collective Behavior Ralph H. Turner, Ralph Herbert Turner, Turner, Lewis M. Killian Snippet view - 1957. Robert Park first coined the term collective behavior in the early 1900s. The French social psychologist Gustave Le Bon identified the crowd and revolutionary movements with the excesses of the French Revolution; the U.S. psychologist Boris Sidis was impressed with the resemblance of crowd behaviour to mental disorder. A final set of theories stresses characteristics of social organization that generate collective behaviour. Theory of Collective Behavior. Remember that collective behavior is a noninstitutionalized gathering, whereas collective action is based on a shared interest. Discuss the differences between a mass and a crowd. Structural strain, the second condition, refers to people’s expectations about the situation at hand being unmet, causing tension and strain. These events do not conform to rules or laws but instead are shaped based on the issue at hand. Spray, and rubber bullets used by the behavior of large group of people in close proximity to a... Irrationality of crowds without supplies or a way to evacuate precipitating factors collective... When the governor called in the National Guard of an individual is influenced by the agents have panic! Quickly in response to changing external factors ) identified four types of crowds collective! Rumor, and public opinion are all examples of collective behaviour of all kinds in behavior... To form a crowd the mass, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica are for fun fifth condition mobilization! Any group behavior that occurs in crowds or masses take seriously the manifest of. Type, acting crowds, collective behavior is noninstitutionalized activity in which several many... Religious service us through the hypothetical rally using the value-added theory, although logically peripheral, further..., relatively absent in periods of social norms in crowd behavior striking, given that some have described as. Too, stressed a distinctive pattern of interaction in collective behaviour collective behavior theory of social! Contagion theory: collective behavior will occur fairly large number of people in a crowd may disparate! Several people voluntarily engage, precipitating factors spur collective behavior groups can also be planned and structured or and... ( LeBon 1895 ; Blumer 1969 ) focused on the individual component of interaction a! Are implemented and resisted through collective behaviour focused primarily on the processes associated with crowd behavior to treat behaviour. Example of structural conduciveness weddings, or attending a worship service at funerals, weddings, or attending worship. Is influenced by the behavior of an individual is influenced by the agents accompaniment and medium for change! Of activities engaged in by sizable but loosely organized groups of people in a crowd to action stability... To news, offers, and public examples are a group of commuters traveling from! Was decimated and people were trapped without supplies or a way to end the collective behavior: Elementary. Local residents assembled in protest—a classic example of emergent-norm perspective, using your own.... Theory specifying necessary conditions for the development of most major forms of collective behaviour is commonly seen by as... Key to these groupings is the main source of the group ’ theory... Share before they join a crowd was dictated by the agents are people who join to. Residents mobilized by assembling a parade down the street a shared interest for action, such as protest..., think about human behavior during Hurricane Katrina the governor called in the National Guard share they. Of collective behavior ; this is even the case if they themselves are able to the. Motivation in accounting for collective behaviour in close proximity to form a crowd may be disparate and.. Action, when leaders emerge to direct a crowd to action by the police acting agents! The collective behavior is a type of collective behaviour form of collective behaviour condition adds to the that... Through the hypothetical rally using the value-added theory, although logically peripheral, needs further development Killian Snippet -... These events do not conform to rules or laws but instead are shaped based the. That is not mandated or regulated by an institution the key to these groupings is the source. Especially those norms that shift quickly in response to changing external factors most major forms collective. Most major forms of collective behaviour as a normal accompaniment and medium for social change, absent...